Japanese Ghosts

by admin on February 14, 2010

japanese ghosts

japanese ghosts

Japanese Woodblock Master Kuniyoshi's Tattooed Suikoden Heroes

Introduction  

In his early years (the age of 7) Utagawa Kuniyoshi (1797-1861) was already fascinated by pictures of warriors and kabuki actors. At the age of 14 he became a member of the successful Utagawa school and was one of the many talented students under master Utagawa Toyokuni I. After an initial laborious start with modest successes he rediscovered the subject of the Suikoden Heroes and his first few prints became an instant commercial success.    

Suikoden Heroes  

Kuniyoshi's preference for heroic subjects and themes can be traced already in the earliest period of his career. At first his warrior designs are very similar in style to that of Shuntei (who was also famous for his sumo prints) but it was the Suikoden -series that Kuniyoshi broke free from this influence. His Suikoden prints (known as the '108 Heroes of the Suikoden') in the oban format were inspired on the adaptation of the author Takizawa Bakin of a comprehensive Chinese heroic novel Shui ho-ch'uan (in Japanese: Suikoden) written in the 14th Century, in the West known as The Water Margin, telling the story of a gang of desperadoes in the 12th Century. These bandits lived in the swamps near the mountain of Liangshan. Their leader was the fearless Song Jiang and the clan was like a bloodthirsty "A -Team" fighting against injustice and for the rights of the common people.   

Although Kuniyoshi was not the first Ukiyo-e artist who worked on this subject, the great Hokusai illustrated the book Shinpen Suikogaden (New Illustrated Edition of the Suikoden) in 1805, his innovative interpretation exceeded that of his predecessor. He depicted these Chinese 'heroes' giving the images some kind of supernatural radiation placing the figures in an ultra-dynamic setting. The often tattooed protagonists with their forceful appearance and frightful weaponry were embraced by the public urging Kuniyoshi to add more designs (over seventy!). Later more series on the Suikoden subject were added including one in the smaller chuban format.    

Triptychs 

Kuniyoshi's outstanding contribution to Japanese art is also to be found in his warrior triptychs. The designs for these triptychs were so distinctive because of his use of masses of black. The three seperate sheets display a clear and dramatic untiy and show a broad appreciation of the possibilities of this format rarely found by Kuniyoshi's predecessors. The individual sheets of the triptychs by, for instance, Kiyonaga and Utamaro can also be appreciated as isolated images but in Kuniyoshi's finest work the sheets are inseperable if the force of the composition is to be experienced.    

Influence  

When Kuniyoshi became a master himself he trained a large number of pupils such as Yoshitora, Yoshimori, Yoshitsuya, Yoshiiku and Yoshikazu. They all worked in a similar style and tradition as Kuniyoshi designing triptychs not unworthy of their master. But it was his most talented student Yoshitoshi who developed a unique individual Western orientated style on the same level as his teacher. Yoshitoshi also designed a series on the Suikoden Heroes consisting of 50 chuban prints which are darker in tone and have a more ominous atmosphere. Kuniyoshi's Suikoden designs also had a defining influence on the fashion of body tattoos in Japan.     

Ukiyo-e Artists 

Torii Kiyonaga (1752-1815), Takizawa Bakin (1767-1848), Katsukawa Shuntei (1770-1820), Kitagawa Utamaro (1753-1806), Katsukawa Hokusai (1760-1849), Utagawa Toyokuni I (1769-1825), Utagawa Yoshitora (act. 1850-1880), Utagawa Yoshimori (1830-1884), Utagawa Yoshitsuya (1822-1866), Utagawa Yoshiiku (1833-1904), Utagawa Yoshikazu (act. ca. 1850-1870), Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1839-1892).    

Books on Kuniyoshi 

'Kuniyoshi, the Warrior Prints' by B.W. Robinson

'Of Brigands and Bravery-Kuniyoshi's Heroes of the Suikoden' by I. Klompmakers

'Heroes and Ghosts: Japanese Prints by Kuniyoshi 1797-1861' by R.Schaap & Timothy T. Clark & M. Forrer    

About the Author

My name is Marijn Kruijff and I am an art lover and dealer specialized in Japanese woodblock prints. On the folowing page you can find illustrations and info on Kuniyoshi's Warrior prints and Suikoden series. Click here for more articles on Japanese woodblock prints and here for Kuniyoshi's Shunga Prints (At the bottom of the page!)

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how do you say red eyed or red eyed ghost in japanese?

I need to know two things. How to say the following in Japanese

Red Eyed

and

Red Eyed Ghost

It's for a report that I'm writing. I need to know how to pronounce it and write it (both so I won't make a fool out of myself. It is an oral presentation) Thank you.

- red-eyed:
赤い目をした
(akai me wo shita)
or
赤い目の
(akai me no)

- ghost:
幽霊
(yuurei)

- red-eyed ghost:
赤い目をした幽霊
(akai me wo shita yuurei)

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